|Chapter 41 The Unreality of Appearance
|The superior scholar when he considers Dao earnestly practices it;
|An average scholar listening to Dao sometimes follows it and sometimes loses it;
|An inferior scholar listening to Dao ridicules it. Were it not thus ridiculed it could not be regarded as Dao.
|Therefore the writer says:
|Those who are most illumined by Dao are the most obscure. Those advanced in Dao are most retiring. Those best guided by Dao are the least prepossessing.
|The high in virtue (de [teh]) resemble a lowly valley; the whitest are most likely to be put to shame; the broadest in virtue resemble the inefficient.
|The most firmly established in virtue resemble the remiss. The simplest chastity resembles the fickle, the greatest square has no corner,
|the largest vessel is never filled. The greatest sound is void of speech, the greatest form has no shape.
|Tao is obscure and without name, and yet it is precisely this Dao that alone can give and complete.
|Chapter 42 The Transformation of Dao
|Tao produces unity; unity produces duality; duality produces trinity; trinity produces all things.
|All things bear the negative principle (yin) and embrace the positive principle (yang). Immaterial vitality, the third principle (chi), makes them harmonious.
|Those things which are detested by the common people, namely to be called orphans, inferiors, and unworthies, are the very things kings and lords take for titles. There are some things which it is a gain to lose, and a loss to gain.
|I am teaching the same things which are taught by others.
|But the strong and aggressive: ones do not obtain a natural death (i.e., self-confident teachers do not succeed). I alone expound the basis of the doctrine of the Dao.
|Chapter 43 The Function of the Universal
|The most tender things of creation race over the hardest.
|A non-material existence enters into the most impenetrable.
|I therefore recognize an advantage in the doctrine of not doing (wu wei) and not speaking. But there are few in the world who obtain the advantage of non-assertion (wu wei) and silence.
|Chapter 44 Precepts
|Which is nearer, a name or a person? Which is more, personality or treasure? Is it more painful to gain or to suffer loss?
|Extreme indulgence certainly greatly wastes. Much hoarding certainly invites severe loss.
|A contented person is not despised. One who knows when to stop is not endangered; he will be able therefore to continue.
|Chapter 45 The Virtue (de [teh]) of Greatness
|Extreme perfection seems imperfect, its function is not exhausted. Extreme fullness appears empty, its function is not exercised.
|Extreme straightness appears crooked; great skill, clumsy; great eloquence, stammering.
|Motion conquers cold, quietude conquers heat. Not greatness but purity and clearness are the world’s standard.
|Chapter 46 Limitation of Desire
|When the world yields to Dao, race horses will be used to haul manure. When the world ignores Dao war horses are pastured on the public common.
|There is no sin greater than desire. There is no misfortune greater than discontent. There is no calamity greater than acquisitiveness.
|Therefore to know extreme contentment is simply to be content.
|Chapter 47 Seeing the Distant
|Not going out of the door I have knowledge of the world. Not peeping through the window I perceive heaven’s Dao. The more one wanders to a distance the less he knows.
|Therefore the wise man does not wander about but he understands, he does not see things but he defines them, he does not labor yet he completes.
|Chapter 48 To Forget Knowledge
|He who attends daily to learning increases in learning. He who practices Dao daily diminishes. Again and again he humbles himself. Thus he attains to non-doing (wu wei). He practices non-doing and yet there is nothing left undone.
|To command the empire one must not employ craft. If one uses craft he is not fit to command the empire.
|Chapter 49 The Virtue of Trust
|The wise man has no fixed heart; in the hearts of the people he finds his own.
|The good he treats with goodness; the not-good he also treats with goodness, for de [teh] is goodness. The faithful ones he treats with good faith; the unfaithful he also treats with good faith, for de [teh] is good faith.
|The wise man lives in the world but he lives cautiously, dealing with the world cautiously. He universalizes his heart; the people give him their eyes and ears, but he treats them as his children.
|Chapter 50 Esteem Life
|Life is a going forth; death is a returning home.
|Of ten, three are seeking life, three are seeking death, and three are dying.
|What is the reason? Because they live in life’s experience. (Only one is immortal.)
|蓋聞善攝生者，路行不遇兕虎，入軍不被甲 兵。兕無所投其角，虎無所措其爪，兵無所容其刃。夫何故？以其無死地 。 。
|I hear it said that the sage when he travels is never attacked by rhinoceros or tiger, and when coming among soldiers does not fear their weapons. The rhinoceros would find no place to horn him, nor the tiger a place for his claws, nor could soldiers wound him. What is the reason? Because he is invulnerable.